When comparing the use of initiatives and referenda, one can argue that the initiative process has the greater impact on the day-to-day operations of state governments. Little debate surrounds the use of the referendum process because most of the issues that are placed on the ballot by state legislatures are there because the law requires a public vote. For this reason and because of the fact that great controversy surrounds the initiative process itself, this article will focus on the use of the statewide initiative process.

Chapter 2 of the 2002 Book of the States contains the following articles and tables:

Chapter 10 of the 2002 Book of the States contains the following articles and tables:

Chapter 9 of the 2002 Book of the States contains the following articles and tables:

States have adopted three basic structures for central higher-education boards to address the governance of individual public institutions and the statewide coordination of higher-education policy and planning. Current trends in higher-education policy include changes to governance structures, implementation of accountability measures, growing pressures on state budgets and an enrollment boom.

 

Editor’s Note: The following is the executive summary of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, prepared by the U.S. Department of Education on January 7, 2002. More detailed information and the text of the act are available through the department’s Web site at http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/esea/index.html.
 
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Legislatures are the engines of representative democracy in the American states. They are the arenas in which the processes for choosing policies, setting priorities and reaching settlements among conflicting values and interests take place. This essay points out trends and directions in which state legislatures are moving, the significant issues confronting them and offers a framework for thinking about the current condition of state legislatures.

An aging workforce presents challenges for the future of pension plans, but measures to address any problems are already being devised and implemented. The question may not be so much whether future retirees will be adequately compensated, but rather, how policy-makers will shape the pension plans of tomorrow in order to maintain the relatively consistent quality of previous plans.

Chapter 3 of the 2002 Book of the States contains the following articles and tables:

Medicaid is a broad and multifaceted program that is jointly financed by the federal and state governments in order to address the needs of low-income families, the elderly and those with chronic, disabling health conditions. It is an essential part of the health coverage and financing system in every state and is the largest source of federal financial assistance to the states. Balancing the growing responsibilities for coverage of vulnerable populations with fiscal realities will undoubtedly be a major challenge in the years ahead.

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