Book of the States 2004

Several systematic factors contribute to the variation in faculty salaries. Institutional type is the most significant factor in determining faculty salaries overall; faculty members are also differentiated according to academic rank. Two other important factors are gender and region, and several individual factors are also identified. This article also discusses two policy issues: the widening gap between salaries at private institutions and those in the public sector; and the continuing salary disadvantage faced by women faculty.

While 2002 was a year of tremendous change for the emergency management community, year 2003 represents a “settling in” period for the implications of homeland security on the nation’s level of preparedness for all hazards. Threats to traditional funding for emergency management and an influx of federal grants funds for everything from haz-mat suits to radio equipment are creating unique challenges for states as they try to maintain a focus on  allhazards preparedness.

The difficulty in drawing meaningful comparisons and identifying trends in standards created as a remedy to ethics concerns within the states is compounded by significant differences in the manner in which jurisdictions define “ethics” and regulate oversight. Conflicts of interest related to gifts and gratuities, and arising from family and unique private sector relationships, represent continuing ethics trends across the nation.

Congress enacted the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) in 2002. Supporters of HAVA would indicate that it is one of the few times that the federal government has established a national program that relies on the states to determine the best methods of implementing the mandates and goals, while opponents would point to its lack of clear direction and clear authority of the federal government to determine whether a program is meeting its objectives.

California’s recall election gave voice to voter dissatisfaction with the state’s direction and resulted in a return to the type of moderate Republican governor that had led the state throughout much of the 1980s and 1990s. While exciting, it does not represent a sea change in California politics.