"Business incentives" can be broadly defined as public subsidies, including, but not limited to, tax abatement and financial assistance programs. They are designed to create, retain or lure businesses for job creation. The term can be used interchangeably as "industrial" or  development incentives." "Tax incentives" broadly refers to any credits or abatements of corporate income, personal income, sales-and-use, property or other taxes to create, retain or lure business. 'Financial incentives" broadly refers to any type of direct loan, loan guarantee grant, infrastructure development, or job training assistance offered to help create, retain or lure businesses.

From the lofty heights of Capitol Hill in Washington D.C., it may appear that the federal government makes all the important decisions about clean air policy. After all, US EPA  regulations and the detailed provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act regulate pollutants that float in the air, pollutants released by industrial and mobile sources (cars and trucks), and the type

of fines and sanctions levied against violators. From the Capitol Hill perspective, all these  national standards and regulations are absolutely necessary. According to the cynics, if left to their own devices the states would adopt weaker and weaker environmental protection laws, creating a "race to the bottom" in which states compete for economic growth by enticing industry with less stringent - and less costly - regulations.

State governments across the nation have been on the upswing, constantly reforming their governance structures, improving administration and management and innovating policies and programs. This article highlights efforts to improve the capacity of state government, raises pertinent issues and questions, and suggests options for state policy-makers to consider.

The Medicaid program was enacted in 1965 as a joint federal and state government program to provide health care for the nation's poorest people. Rising health costs over the three decades since its implementation have caused policy-makers repeatedly to examine ways to rein in expenditures. State governments began experimenting with managed care programs for their Medicaid populations decades ago, but due to greater federal government flexibility in recent years, the number of state Medicaid managed care programs has exploded. Less than 10 percent of the Medicaid population was enrolled in some form of managed care before 1992. Over 54 percent of the Medicaid population is now enrolled in managed care, according to the most recent Health Care Financing Administration figures.

A vital tool for policymakers across the region, Comparative Data Reports (CDRs) offer a snapshot of conditions on a number of issues. Published annually, the CDRs track a multitude of revenue sources, appropriations levels, and performance measures in Southern states, and provide a useful tool to state government officials and staff. CDRs are available for adult correctional systems, comparative revenues and revenue forecasts, education, Medicaid, and transportation.

A vital tool for policymakers across the region, Comparative Data Reports (CDRs) offer a snapshot of conditions on a number of issues. Published annually, the CDRs track a multitude of revenue sources, appropriations levels, and performance measures in Southern states, and provide a useful tool to state government officials and staff. CDRs are available for adult correctional systems, comparative revenues and revenue forecasts, education, Medicaid, and transportation.

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