Things are starting to look up for state pension systems.
“Conditions affecting public pension plans continue to improve,” said Keith Brainard, research director for the National Association of State Retirement Administrators.
That’s good news following years of warnings about the sustainability of state public pension systems. A Pew Center on the States 2010 report warned of a $1 trillion gap between what states had set aside for pensions and the real price tag for those benefits.
States Strive to Find a ‘New Normal’ in Providing Services
When Jennifer Granholm was governor of Michigan, she had to make cuts in state government—a lot of cuts. “It was two terms of shrinking the size of government and dealing with the shrinkage of tax revenues … from the contraction in our economy,” Granholm said. She cut nearly $15 billion of state spending, shrinking the size of Michigan state government by 13 percent, more than any state in the country, from the turn of the century to the end of her second term in 2011. It was necessary, but it wasn’t easy.
Public pension systems continue to face significant challenges, a trend that has continued for more than a decade. While public pension difficulties alone would not be a destabilizing force on the economy, the fact that every other element of our nation’s retirement architecture also faces complex challenges requires the urgent attention of policymakers at all levels of government. The funding difficulties facing the Social Security and Medicare systems; the rising funding gap at corporate pension plans, record deficits at the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (or PBGC, the federal entity that insures the benefits of private pension plans), low personal savings rate of so many Americans alongside the minimal amounts they have set aside for retirement, the “graying” of America with an increasing number of Americans now reaching retirement age and living longer; and the aforementioned public pension challenges cumulatively amount to a tsunami of red ink.
The economic forecast was anything but rosy when the Car Allowance Rebate System—otherwise known as Cash for Clunkers—kicked off in July 2009.
Unemployment had reached 9.4 percent. Both Chrysler and GM had filed for bankruptcy. Things were not looking good for the economy in general or automakers specifically. That’s where Cash for Clunkers came in.
American state capitols have evolved only moderately in the more than 200 years since their early beginnings in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Typically, state capitols were designed, from the earliest, to have multi-storied wings housing the legislature’s two chambers, with galleries for viewing by the public, on two sides of a central rotunda opening high into a dome. Often, the governor’s ceremonial office also opens onto the rotunda. In 12 states, the supreme court also meets in the capitols.
Ten states have adapted to this “ideal” in particularly atypical ways.
The Keystone XL Pipeline was designed to bring Canadian crude oil down to the large U.S. refining markets along the Gulf Coast. The project drew intense political opposition from environmental groups over the development of oil sands, while supporters touted its energy security benefits, including much-needed pipeline capacity.
In January 2012, the Obama administration denied the project’s necessary permit to cross the international border citing arbitrary deadlines set by Congress to force a decision. The company backing Keystone XL now has decided to break up the project in two phases, which will allow domestic construction to proceed while it reapplies for a permit needed to cross the international border.
Spokane, Wash., officials were simply looking for a way to deal with the city’s solid waste two decades ago when they stumbled upon a solution that could turn that trash into treasure.
City officials and the community made the decision to invest in a waste-to-energy facility, burning solid waste from the Spokane region to create energy. City Administrator Theresa Sanders said the waste-to-energy facility has given Spokane a solution to the solid waste issue that is environmentally sound, and also gives the city an alternative energy and a new business opportunity.
The lack of a true federal energy policy has been a source of frustration for policymakers on all sides of the ideological spectrum. Unfortunately, Washington will provide little clarity any time soon as the pattern of fits and starts and conflicting messages on energy policy will continue as gas prices climb.
But there is some good news despite the gloom. Oil and natural gas production is booming domestically, with states directing 96 percent of the increase in production since 2007. Solar installations doubled and installed wind energy increased by 31 percent over the past year.
The economics of alternative energy development, however, rely heavily on federal tax incentives and low-interest loans that have come under fire over their cost and charges of political favoritism by picking winners and losers.
The crystal ball is murky when it comes to predictions about energy consumption, markets and future trends.
Consider hydraulic fracturing, for example. Ten years ago, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated resource potential in the Marcellus Shale region was off by 70 times, according to current federal surveys.
“I think it’s essentially impossible to anticipate what energy markets are going to look like in 20 or 30 years, because the rate of change in technology and potential for climate change are so great and so disruptive that the world is going to be fundamentally different than it is now,” said John Petersen, the founder of the Arlington Institute, a nonprofit research organization that focuses on future global trends.
Puerto Rico Gov. Luis Fortuño has taken steps to lower energy costs and decrease the island’s dependence on foreign oil. He also sees benefits in working with other U.S. territories in the Caribbean to address energy challenges.