State-level 311 Systems: Leveraging Service Enhancement and Performance Measurement at the State Level

The use of 311 and similar mechanisms of non-emergency call management systems has emerged as a viable alternative for increasing citizen access to government, and improving government responses to the issues of greatest concern to citizens. This article describes the state of best practices for 311 systems and suggests ways to extend those successes throughout state and local government. Improving technology allows the exploration of widespread adoption and integration with other systems. Challenges and alternatives of designing and offering a 311 system are provided as recommendations to assist public managers in decision-making.

  Download this article in PDF

About the Authors
Marc Holzer is professor and chair of the Graduate Department of Public Administration. Since 1975 he has directed the National Center for Public Productivity, and he is the founder and editor in chief of the Public Performance & Management Review. His recent publications include the Public Productivity Handbook (edited, second edition in press, 2004). He is a past president of the American Society for Public Administration and a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.

Richard W. Schwester received his doctorate from the Graduate Department of Public Administration, Rutgers University-Newark. Schwester’s research interests include citizen participation, e-government, and urban revitalization projects. Schwester is a senior research associate for the National Center for Public Productivity (NCPP) at Rutgers-Newark, assistant editor of Public Performance & Management Review and associate editor for the Journal of Public Management and Social Policy.

Angie McGuire is a doctoral candidate in the Graduate Department of Public Administration at Rutgers University-Newark Campus. As a senior research associate for the National Center for Public Productivity, she works to develop outreach mechanisms, fundraising initiatives, and partnerships with organizations with similar interests and goals.

Kathryn Kloby is a doctoral candidate in the Graduate Department of Public Administration at Rutgers University-Newark Campus. As a researcher and project coordinator for the National Center for Public Productivity, she works to deliver online classes to public managers in Public Performance Measurement and design performance measurement systems in New Jersey Municipalities.