Publications

By Katherine Barrett and Richard Greene
With newspapers and scholarly reports full of discussion about states and their shortages—or surpluses—of tax revenues, it would be easy to focus exclusively on the dollars brought in through sales taxes, income taxes and so on. That kind of analysis misses out on the revenue elephant in the room, though: the money that comes from the federal government.

Medicaid provides health insurance to more than 70 million Americans who fall within one of four main categories: infants and children; pregnant women, parents and other nonelderly adults; individuals of all ages with disabilities; and very low-income seniors.1 Prior to the passing of the Affordable Care Act, or ACA, in 2010, most low-income adults were not able to qualify for Medicaid because federal law excluded adults without dependent children from the program. Additionally, income eligibility for most parents was extremely limited in most states.2

Charter schools are publicly funded schools that are operated by nongovernmental boards or organiza- tions, which can be nonprofit or for-profit, and are in a short-term contract with the state or state designated authorizer. The state or designated authorizer sets performance and operating standards, which must be periodically evaluated.

Currently, 44 states have authorized charter schools. Of those that have charter schools, 24 states have explicitly defined or permitted cybercharter schools. Cybercharter schools provide either all or the majority of their instruction online.

Employment can play a critical role in reducing recidivism, but some communities simply do not have enough resources for corrections, reentry, and workforce development practitioners to provide every adult leaving prison or jail with the services they need to reduce their likelihood of re-offending and increase their level of job readiness.

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, or WIOA, provides for comprehensive realignment of the nation’s workforce development programs. The federal government provides significant funding to states for workforce system programs covered by WIOA. For program year 2016 the federal government appropriated more than $6.9 billion to states for the Core WIOA Program and approximately $3.4 billion in federal formula funding for partner programs, for total funding of $10.5 billion. Federal funding is also provided through competitive grants.

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