BOS 2012


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 » State Constitutions

Chapter 2 » Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations

Chapter 3 » State Legislative Branch

Chapter 4 » State Executive Branch

Chapter 5 » State Judicial Branch

Chapter 6 » Elections

Chapter 7 » State Finance

Chapter 8 » State Management and Administration

Chapter 9 » Selected State Policies and Programs

Chapter 10 » State Pages

State revenue collections in the 2011 fiscal year grew by 6.4 percent and state general fund spending increased by 4 percent following two straight years of decline.  The 2011 tax revenues are just $26.6 billion under the peak reached in 2008 and are just shy of the 2007 collections. Meanwhile, the challenges facing states in many programs continue to grow. State spending on Medicaid programs, for instance, is expected to increase nearly 50 percent from 2010 to 2012. Those are just a few examples of information and data found in the 2012 edition of The Book of the States, The Council of State Governments’ annual almanac of information about the states.

Ensuring students are academically prepared for postsecondary education was the spark leading the National Governors Association and Council of Chief State School Officers in 2005 to push for a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn—known as the common core state standards. Because states historically have set their own academic standards, the nation has been faced with a patchwork of academic expectations. The knowledge and skills in reading, writing and math that a student was expected to have at each grade level in one state could be significantly different from those in another. This inconsistency of standards became a serious problem whenever a family moved from one state to another. Students could easily be forced to repeat material they had already learned or, even worse, face a learning gap in which they had not yet learned material that had already been covered in the state to which their families moved.  

Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have created new domestic energy frontiers and made the United States a net energy exporter for the first time in more than 60 years. Although the process has been used for decades to stimulate production from declining wells, new technological advancements have rapidly accelerated the development of unconventional reserves of fossil fuels that were either unknown or considered uneconomic just a few years ago. Despite the excitement over the potential economic benefits are underlying public safety and environmental concerns.

Almost 60 years of federal record-keeping passed before this country reached its highest number of major disaster declarations, 81 in 2010. It took only one more year to shatter that record, with 99 in 2011. State emergency management handled the growing number of events even as the average operating budget slid for the second year in a row. While Congressional scrutiny over federal spending persisted in Washington, D.C., state emergency management showed the initiative and proposed a substantial restructuring of related federal grants, one that promotes flexibility and accountability. The backdrop to all of this is national elections, which can turn every issue—including better preparation for the next disaster in order to save lives and protect property—into a political football.

Medicaid is the stuff of nightmares for state budgeters. With the Great Recession, Medicaid enrollment expanded as unemployment increased. Overall health care costs also continued to swell, although recent data indicate that the health spending growth rate may have slowed somewhat. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an enhanced federal matching rate for state Medicaid programs in recognition of the counter-cyclical nature of the program—just when state revenues contract, the demand for more spending in Medicaid increases. The enhanced Medicaid matching rates ended during the 2011 fiscal year and states face difficult budget decisions that pit Medicaid against other state policy priorities.